1' Thick Walled Polycarbonate 40' Long
In the ultimate part, some strategies have been offered to increase energy absorption of crush component of the Siemens locomotive. One of the widespread damage models for delicate metals is Johnson- Cook harm model which is extensively used for collision simulations, Peirs and Verleysen . Li et al confirmed that using injury criterion for gentle metals is determined by damage growth equation and consideration of appropriate parameters such as load and so forth. Rousselier and Rousselier printed the harm mannequin later based mostly on continuum mechanics theory. The latest researches on Rousselier's models show that this model can estimate failure mode of tensile notched bar.
Considering that dimensions of the crash element of Siemens ER24PC locomotive are such that it is thought to be thick-walled energy absorbent. Therefore, rupture of the sheet causes destruction throughout collision.
At the end, the best meshing during which outcomes turn into nearly independent of the variety of components is found as nodes and parts. In this area, the plot will become almost horizontal and it implies that results are unbiased of the number of nodes. Stress-strain plot of S355J2G3 metal in several pressure charges, Wall . Johnson-Cook, GTN and Modified Rousselier harm models have been examined for estimation of injury in testing collision of crush factor of Siemens ER24PC locomotive. By evaluating outcomes of modeling with totally different harm criteria with outcomes of laboratory check, suitable damage criteria has been specified.
Increase of sheet thickness enhances resistance of energy absorbent and phenomenon of progressive buckling does not happen in these absorbents. As observed above, folding begins from one end and progresses because of low thickness of energy absorbent.
Therefore, 4 components of kind b should be used to mannequin this sort of folding. Hayduk and Wierzbicki and Wierzbicki and Abramowicz elaborated essential folding mechanism based mostly on two kinds of parts a and b. any folding including symmetrical folding, asymmetrical folding, expanded folding, cross folding and so forth, could be modeled by combining these two components. Based on thickness of the desired part, four elements were used so that effects of linearization primarily based on thickness do not have an effect on the results. To ensure that the obtained results are unbiased of the number of factor, mesh sensitivity analysis was done.
For this purpose, this phenomenon is called progressive buckling, Jones . Lengths over eight' require particular packaging and transport at an extra nominal price.
Then, it is necessary to use injury fashions for prediction of rupture for correct modeling of destruction means of this crash factor underneath impression. In thick-walled power absorbents which ratio of thickness to medium stage radius is higher than zero.05, the construction harm is resulted by folding and sheet rupture, Ugural .
In this evaluation, when the number of nodes was increased or components turned finer, value of a quantity was recorded in a node. It was noticed that when the number of nodes increased excessively or the elements turned excessively finer, there shall be errors in the obtained answers.