The beneath estimation of analytical answer compared to the numerical values is because of the truth that the mechanisms which dissipate energy in construction embrace solely expansion and bending deformations. On the opposite hand, contemplating that two answers are close to one another, the assumed deformation mechanisms in calculations can be regarded cheap and suitable regardless of their low distinction.
Agreement of the proposed strain hardening model with laboratory results for aluminum foam, Hanssen and Hopperstad . Therefore, the second normal situation can be established. Hence, fact of the computer modeling is confirmed in accordance with this normal considering attaining situations mentioned in commonplace ECE R 66. Figure 18 shows total vitality and hourglass vitality in a diagram.
p and D constants for metal are equal to 3.585 and 802, respectively. Basis of theoretical work of Hayduk and Wierzbicki and Wierzbicki and Abramowicz is, concept of labor and vitality for estimation of folding force. For this purpose, the dissipated energies rate is calculated based on the outlined important folding mechanism and folding pressure is calculated by equalizing the dissipated energies to the work carried out by the exterior drive. As shown in Figure 8, the first folding created throughout collision is the expanded folding in crush element of Siemens locomotive.
Two GTN and corrected Rousselier microstructure harm fashions are launched later. For this objective, three Johnson -Cook, GTN and Modified Rousselier injury models have been used. First, the start of harm is described and then the required info for entering these injury standards in Abaqus software program is explained. By comparing outcomes of modeling with totally different damage standards with results of laboratory test, suitable harm criteria has been lastly specified. Once outcomes of the simulation had been authenticated, injury fashions have been used to resolve the associated drawback more precisely and take extra settlement between the simulated drawback and actuality.
Considering this Figure, it is clear that hourglass power worth is normal within the mentioned restrict as a result of most hourglass vitality (0.39 MJ) is equal to 0.7% of whole vitality (55.93 MJ). Diagram of pressure by way of time for three damage fashions and laboratory results. Comparing characteristics of collision in simulation with totally different injury models. on this case, time of answer in the program increased as a result of presence of subroutine.