Stress In Thick
The presented Tables show that the set off with sharp edges with length of 36.24 cm, width of 1.45 cm and depth of 11 mm has the most effective efficiency when it comes to improve of power absorption and reduction of most pressure. 12 totally different fashions have been thought of for determination of optimal dimensions of those two sides of the crash factor of Siemens locomotive and outcomes of simulation are given in Table eleven-14. The offered Tables present that rectangular trigger with size of 18.32 cm, width of 1.49 cm, and depth of eleven mm has the best performance when it comes to increase of energy absorption and discount of maximum drive. Totally 18 fashions with totally different triggers have been simulated to determine optimal size of 5 models, optimum width of 3 models, optimal depth of seven fashions and optimum shape of three fashions. Values inserted in Table for the crash elements without set off have been calculated.
At the tip, two optimum fashions have been introduced for the crash component of Siemens locomotive and it was proven that certainly one of two proposed optimum fashions can be used contemplating design priorities. Use of aluminum foam will increase vitality absorption by 24% whereas most drive grows only by 0.2%.
Simulation has been done in zero.015 s like the earlier sections. Values inserted in Table have been calculated primarily based on reference mannequin . In this Section, contemplating outcomes of the previous Sections, optimum model has been presented for the crash component of Siemens locomotive. Results of the earlier Sections about appropriate injury model, suitable foam model and suitable set off model have been used and at last, the optimal model has been introduced. at the finish, the model which has the most effective performance has been selected as fascinating model.
Therefore, aluminum foam can be utilized contained in the crash element of Siemens locomotive to extend vitality absorption. To validate simulations with the modified Rousselier damage model, ECE R sixty six standard was used and it was proven that the carried out simulations fulfill circumstances mentioned in ECE R 66 commonplace nicely. Because thickness of plate of the crash element of the Siemens locomotive is excessive and is ruptured throughout collision, simulation doesn't present correct results with out contemplating injury criterion. Comparison of software outcomes with results of analytical solution showed that precision of modeling results in Abaqus software program is acceptable.
To find creation of set off within the crash element, stress contour is studied at time of 0.00475 s and placement of set off within the crash factor is specified. The associated thought is that location of trigger is precisely the place which there is the highest stress. As proven in figure 24 specified trigger is rectangular with length, width and depth of 18.32 cm, 1.forty nine cm and, eleven mm respectively. In the next part it's shown that set off with these specs has the best characteristic. Coefficients used in pressure hardening mannequin of the aluminum foam, Hanssen and Hopperstad .
In Table 6, the width, depth and form of the set off are fixed and its length is varied (the width and depth are 1.forty nine cm, and 3.5 mm, and the shape is rectangular). In Table 7, the size, depth and form of the set off is fixed and its width is diversified (the length based on one of the best result of desk 6 is chosen 18.32 cm, depth is 3.5 mm and form is rectangular). In Table eight, the size, width and depth of the trigger are fastened and its form is diversified (the length is eighteen.32 cm, width using result of desk 7 is 1.forty nine cm and depth is 3.5 mm). Finally in table 9, the size, width and form of the set off are fastened and its depth is varied (the length is eighteen.32 cm, width is 1.49 cm and form using results of desk 8 is rectangular). For this function, diagram of pressure when it comes to displacement reveals that peak a diagram has been created at time of 0.00475 s.